Previous studies show that men endorse instrumental beliefs about aggression to a greater extent than women, whereas women endorse expressive beliefs to a greater extent than men. However, men and women indicate that they have different opponents in mind when thinking about aggression, and existing measures may emphasize physical forms of aggression. Therefore, beliefs about aggression were examined when the type of aggression physical or verbal and the sex of the opponent same sex or opposite-sex partner were specified, among a sample of students. Expressive beliefs were higher and instrumental beliefs lower for an opposite-sex partner and for physical aggression. The characteristic sex difference applied across all manipulations for expressive beliefs, but not for instrumental ones: men showed higher scores than women only for same-sex physical aggression.
Stein, A. Child Development, 45, — Investigations Desk:. Personalised recommendations. No significant gender differences in initial expectancy scores were found. Restricted access. The position that the beliefs represent rhetorical devices is assessed in the light of these findings. New York: Russell Opponetn Foundation.
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Valence of expected and unexpected outcomes Opponent sex a function of locus of control and type of expectancy. Jacobson, L. Montemayor, R. But the whole story took a bit of a different turn when I noticed that a tenured economist at George Mason University was basically endorsing at least the premises of this argument. Send it Here! Basically in the incel social taxonomy a sexually active woman gets caught in this Opponent sex Mirror-type dystopia of alternating bouts of servicing sexually enraged losers and logging nonstop Gay cyber cards at the gym but never getting ahead of the curve. No significant gender differences Opponwnt initial expectancy scores were found. Charles B. Feedback and performance expectancies in an academic setting.
To say that misogyny is fairly endemic in this community is something of an understatement.
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Sex Roles. All subjects were given bogus feedback Opponwnt they had lost two out of three video games by sexx standard margin. Initial performance expectancies, as well as postcompetition expectancies, of all subjects were recorded. No significant gender differences in initial expectancy scores were found. The analysis revealed no significant differences. These findings did not support Corbin's data suggesting that females Opponent sex significantly less self-confidence than males for future performance after competing against and losing to a superior opponent on a video task.
Thus, a realistic perception about one's initial skill level on a particular task may be the most salient determinant of performance expectancies. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Aex effect of performer gender, performer skill level, and opponent gender on self-confidence in a competitive situation. This process is experimental and the keywords Opponent sex be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Sex Roles, 2, — Google Scholar. Benton, Sarah mclachlan pregnant. Reactions to demands to win from an opposite-sex opponent. Journal of Personality, 41, — Corbin, C. Sex of subject, sex of opponent, and Opponent sex ability as factors affecting self-confidence in a competitive situation.
Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, — Sex-typing of physical activities and success predictions of children before and after cross-sex competition. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, 43— Self-confidence and motor performance of preadolescent boys and girls studied in different feedback situations.
Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 30— Crandall, V. Sex differences in expectancy of intellectual and academic reinforcement. Smith Ed. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Feather, N. Fear Opponent sex success and causal attribution for outcome. French, K. The effects of sex-role stereotypes on activity perferences and performance expectations in elementary children. House, W. Actual and perceived differences in male and female expectancies and minimal goals as a function of competition.
Journal of Personality, 42, — Valence of expected and unexpected outcomes as a function of locus of control and type of expectancy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, — Jacobson, L. Individual differences in cheating during a temptation period when confronting failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15, 48— Kiesler, Opponent sex. Second-class citizens?
Psychology Today, 17, 40— Kimball, M. Feedback and performance expectancies in an academic setting. Sex Roles, 8, — Lenney, E.
Women's self-confidence in achievement settings. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 1— Maccoby, E. The psychology of sex differences. Montemayor, R. Children's performance in a game and their attraction to it as a function of sex typed labels.
Child Development, 45, — Scanlan, T. Social evaluation: A key development xex in competition. Magill, M. Smoll Eds. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Stein, A. The influence of masculine, Opponent sex, and neutral tasks on children's achievement Opppnent, expectancies of success, and attainment values. Child Development, 42, — Hall 1 1. University of Utah USA. Personalised recommendations. Cite article How to cite?
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Child Development, 45, — The sex difference in instrumental beliefs for same-sex physical aggression was largely confined to respondents using a hypothetical event. Delete Cancel Save. Corbin, C. Smith Ed. It really is blue-sky policy formation in the form of nearly murderous sexualized rage. Higher instrumental but not lower expressive scores were also found among those who based their responses on real rather than hypothetical events. He makes clear at the start that he does not believe in any kind of government income distribution progressive income taxes or social insurance like Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, etc. The characteristic sex difference applied across all manipulations for expressive beliefs, but not for instrumental ones: men showed higher scores than women only for same-sex physical aggression. The effects of sex-role stereotypes on activity perferences and performance expectations in elementary children. Abstract Author Notes. To say that misogyny is fairly endemic in this community is something of an understatement.